Brundibár received its premiere in German-occupied Prague and was performed in secret by children at a Jewish Orphanage. In August 1942, Hans Krása was deported to Terezín concentration camp, followed by many of the adults and children with whom he had worked. In July 1943, the score of Brundibár was smuggled into camp.
Krása re-orchestrated it and the premiere of the Terezín version took place in the hall of the Magdeburg barracks. Realising the propagandistic potential of this enormously popular artistic endeavour, the Nazis arranged a special new staging of Brundibár for a propaganda film, and the same production was performed for the inspection of Terezín by the International Red Cross in September 1944.
This would be the last of the fifty-five performances in the Terezín ghetto. Two weeks later, transportation of artists to Auschwitz and other destinations East began, silencing the most popular theatrical production in Terezín.